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The earliest known cultures in the region were maize farmers.

When the Spanish arrived, the Manso, Suma, and Jumano tribes populated the area.

Stephenson, who had married into the local Hispanic aristocracy, established the Rancho de San José de la Concordia, which became the nucleus of Anglo and Hispanic settlement within the limits of modern-day El Paso, in 1844.

Given the reclamations of the Texas Republic that wanted a chunk of the Santa Fe trade, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo effectively made the settlements on the north bank of the river a formal American settlement, separate from Old El Paso del Norte on the Mexican side.

However, the various communities never totalled more than several hundred residents with Hispanics and Americans holding an equal percentage of the population.

During the Civil War, a Confederate presence was in the area until it was captured by the Union California Column in 1862.

El Paso itself, incorporated in 1873, encompassed the small area communities that had developed along the river. However, this period was short lived as the Mexican Revolution greatly impacted the city, bringing an influx of refugees – and capital – to the bustling boom town.

In the 1870s, a population of 23 non-Hispanic whites and 150 Hispanics was reported. Spanish-language newspapers, theaters, movie houses, and schools were established, many supported by a thriving Mexican refugee middle class.The United States Senate fixed a boundary between Texas and New Mexico at the 32nd parallel, thus largely ignoring history and topography.A military post called "The Post opposite El Paso" (meaning opposite El Paso del Norte, across the Rio Grande) was established in 1854.; from Spanish, "the pass") is a city in and the seat of El Paso County, Texas, United States. The region of over 2.7 million people constitutes the largest bilingual and binational work force in the Western Hemisphere. The two cities, along with Las Cruces in the neighboring U. state of New Mexico, form a combined international metropolitan area sometimes referred to as the Paso del Norte or El Paso–Juárez–Las Cruces.However, the region was claimed by Texas as part of the treaty signed with Mexico and numerous attempts were made by Texas to bolster these claims.

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