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By the 1940s, both had become part of African American jive slang and meant "sophisticated; currently fashionable; fully up-to-date".

In a 1961 essay, Kenneth Rexroth used both the terms hipster and hippies to refer to young people participating in black American or Beatnik nightlife.

Andrew Loog Oldham refers to "all the Chicago hippies," seemingly in reference to black blues/R&B musicians, in his rear sleeve notes to the 1965 LP The Rolling Stones, Now!

Some opened the first health food stores, and many moved to southern California where they could practice an alternative lifestyle in a warm climate.

Over time, young Americans adopted the beliefs and practices of the new immigrants.

By 1965, hippies had become an established social group in the U.

S., and the movement eventually expanded to other countries, Hippie culture spread worldwide through a fusion of rock music, folk, blues, and psychedelic rock; it also found expression in literature, the dramatic arts, fashion, and the visual arts, including film, posters advertising rock concerts, and album covers.

Even the counterculture of the Ancient Greeks, espoused by philosophers like Diogenes of Sinope and the Cynics were also early forms of hippie culture.

The first signs of modern "proto-hippies" emerged in fin de siècle Europe.

championed sexual liberation, were often vegetarian and eco-friendly, promoted the use of psychedelic drugs which they believed expanded one's consciousness, and created intentional communities or communes.

They used alternative arts, street theatre, folk music, and psychedelic rock as a part of their lifestyle and as a way of expressing their feelings, their protests and their vision of the world and life.

The term hippie first found popularity in San Francisco by Herb Caen, a journalist for the San Francisco Chronicle.

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