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Supremacy of judiciary is another very important feature of a federal state where there is an independent judiciary to interpret the Constitution and to maintain its sanctity.

The Supreme Court of India has the original jurisdiction to settle disputes between the Union and the States.

It has been the matter of debate among the scholars that whether the constitution of India is completely federal or unitary in nature.

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In Indian constitution the powers of state and centre are clearly defined and there are very clear limits of both the centre and the state for law making powers. The State List consists of 66 subjects of local interest such as Public Health, Police etc.

The Concurrent List has 47 subjects important to both the Union and the State such as Electricity, Trade Union, Economic and Social Planning, etc.

Such an amendment has to be passed by majority of total members of each house of the Parliament as well as by two-thirds majority of the members present and voting there in.

However, in addition to this process, some amendments must be approved by at least 50% of the states.

The federal polity, in other words, provides a constitutional device for bringing unity in diversity and for the achievement of common national goals. A federal government exists when the powers of the government for a community are divided substantially according to a principle that there is a single independent authority for the whole area in respect of some matters and there are independent regional authorities for other matters, each set of authorities being co-ordinate to and subordinate to the others within its own sphere.

The Constitution of India has adopted federal features; though it does not, in fact, claim that it establishes a federation.

This enables the Union government to exercise control over the State administration.

The equality of units in a federation is best guaranteed by their equal representation in the Uppers House of the federal legislature (Parliament).

A unitary system is governed constitutionally as one single unit, with one constitutionally created legislature. A unitary state is a sovereign state governed as one single unit in which the central government is supreme and any administrative divisions (sub national units) exercise only powers that the central government chooses to delegate.

This is one of the federal features of the Indian constitution.

As such amendments can only be made by the Union Parliament.

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