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To bring the impurities down to levels below which they have a negligible effect on corrosion is not currently cost-effective.

However, considerable research in Europe is being conducted into managing this issue.

Short-termism and the culture of instant returns is a serious problem.

Need To Ensure Pipeline Longevity If equipment can be made to last longer as a result of good corrosion-management techniques, this will create greater profitability for the operator.

If you use carbon steel, you must nurse it by using good welds, good coatings, good cathodic protection and good material.

A lot of R&D work is being done to replicate these extreme conditions in the laboratory and the findings will be of great assistance, especially in relation to issues around Brazil’s pre-salt layer.

The country has exploited its vast natural resources and huge labor pool to become Latin America’s leading economic power and the discovery of several extensive gas fields in the pre-salt layer has opened a new chapter of growth opportunities.

Corrosion management translates directly into asset integrity and extension of useful life – in other words, operational effectiveness and cost-efficiency.

If equipment can be made to last longer as a result of good corrosion-management techniques, this will create greater profitability for the operator.

These new alloys combine the strength of steel with the resilience of lining and, in an ideal situation, businesses would make increasing use of them as part of an effective lifecycle management program.

The education of the industry’s key players in lifecycle costing is an issue that must be addressed urgently.

One of the biggest challenges faced by corrosion and coatings professionals as well as the industry is how to transport sequestered (dense phase) carbon dioxide.

It contains impurities such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulphur oxides (SOx) which are produced particularly from coal-fired power stations.

The water depth challenges are complicated by high pressures and high temperatures as well as by the difficulties of drilling through the salt layer.

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